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American Indian History 208: Citing Your Sources

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Chicago Style

CHICAGO STYLE:

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

  1. For citations within your paper, here is an example:

-Regular Citation:  Your paper will read as follows:

A major theme of the book was shown through the repeated explanation of the Indians refusal to back down, and the white man’s response with violence.  “A single shot, according to a reporter on the scene, was fired from the soldiers, and with that, the smallest excuse was manufactured.” (45)

            -There is a description of the citation written, followed by an example from your book.  Open quote, cite directly from the book, followed by an end quote, the page number in parenthesis, then a period.  If you are only using the one source required, there is no reason to footnote or endnote citations.

 

-Block quote citation : Your paper will read as follows (required for quotes longer than 2 sentences):

A major theme of the book was shown through the repeated explanation of the Indians refusal to back down, and the white man’s response with violence. 

            “A single shot, according to a reporter on the scene, was fired from the soldiers, and with that, the smallest             excuse was manufactured. When the rain of ammunition ceased, over 300 Lakota people lay dead from gunfire,             cannonfire, or manual butchering within the encampment and within adjacent ravines up to two miles away.” (45)

-There is a description of the citation, followed by an example from your book.  Block quotes are indented, traditionally single spaced, and reduced to size 11.

 

      2)  For citations within your paper from class, here is an example:

As it was stated in class, the migration of the earliest inhabitants into the American continents has been found in the southwestern regions.  There is evidence that points to these theories, one of which would be the findings of Clovis Points in New Mexico, another would be the Anasazi.

                                               

 

  1. If you used more than one source, footnotes/endnotes, and specific in-text citing is necessary, as well as a bibliography page.  Here are examples:

IN-TEXT CITING: Same format as one source with quote/citation, but instead of only listing the page number, include author’s last name.  Example: (Colloway, 33) and (Brown, 67).  This format is only acceptable if two-three sources are used.  More than that would indicate the need for footnotes/endnotes.

FOOTNOTES/ENDNOTES

-First name and last name, title in italics (town/state of publication: place of publication, date), page number. For example:

*Dee Brown, Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee (New York, NY: H. Holt, 2007), 65.

-The entire author name, title, publication place and date is only necessary in footnotes/endnotes the first time used.  Multiple uses after the initial citation can be shortened.  For example:

            *Brown, Bury My Heart, 65.

-If you use the same source twice in a row, rather than re-writing out the citation, ibid followed by the page number can be used.  For example:

            *Brown, Bury My Heart, 65.

            *Ibid, 67.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

-Last name, first name.  Title in Italics. Town/state of publication: place of publication, date.

            Example: Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee. New York, NY: H. Holt, 2007.

 

  1. HINTS & TIPS:

-Mentioning your book title within your paper always use italics rather than quotes or underline                         

-Mentioning your author: first time, full name, throughout paper just by last name.  Also, avoid overuse of the author’s actual name; try “the author”, “it’s mentioned in the book”, etc. Additionally, avoid the overuse of the phrase “the book”; try mentioning the title, author, “in the text”, “the story”, etc.

 -Avoid run-on sentences, but also short, choppy sentences.  Same goes for paragraphs.                                     

-Have someone read your paper before you hand it in.  To you, it’s glorious, but there might be grammatical errors

-Please avoid saying “this is what has made us what we are today”, “back in history”, and “without this…blah blah blah”